Product Related Questions

How can I find the COA?

You can find our COA’s using our Analytical Database.

 

We verify every batch of every product with the help of accredited independent third party laboratories. The equipment and methods required for each product vary widely. For this reason, we work with several specialty labs and PhDs in analytical and organic chemistry to design our analytical methods.

 

Analytical techniques we use include NMR, FTIR, HPLC, LC-MS, GC-MS, TLC, ICP-MS, Gravimetry, UV-Vis, Titration, Melting Point, organoleptic.

How do you make a chemical solution?

Please check our guide on how to make a suspension.

How do you measure a product?

Proper measurement is important. Some of our products can be dangerous or toxic when mishandled. We also recommend you measure your product on receipt to confirm total weight or volume.

 

Powders:

A scoop will measure volume and a scale will measure mass. We strongly recommend you do not use a “micro-scoop” as the density of powder can vary.

 

We recommend using a precise milligram scale. Once you have confirmed the total powder weight you can create a solution for a more accurate volumetric measurement. See the question below on how to make a chemical solution.
Solutions: Solutions are measured by volume. We recommend using a graduated beaker or pipette.

Do you offer custom synthesis or wholesale?

Yes, we do. All product listings include a bulk pricing table. If you need additional price breaks or unlisted products, please contact us and we’ll see what we can do for you.

Why is there so little powder in my jar?

Most of our powder products are sold in increments of 1000 milligrams (mg), that is 1 gram (g).  So a single gram, even with the vast range of powder densities, will be a small amount. Less than a tablespoon.

 

If you do not have experience working with milligram quantities of research material we advise against purchasing powder products.

What is my product’s shelf life?

True shelf life is variable and in most cases, little data is available for novel compounds. Shelf life is decreased by exposure to moisture, oxygen, and sunlight, which can create free radicals. Shelf life can be extended by deep freeze (-20ºC or -80ºC). Powder in deep freeze could have a shelf life in excess of 10 years with minimal degradation.

My solution product froze, will it be ok?

It’s possible for solutions exposed to a low temperature to freeze. For example, during cold months in high latitudes, solution products can freeze during transit. Some solvents have high freezing temperatures so they can freeze above water’s freezing temperature. If your solution froze it’s ok, provided the bottle has no crack. Some products (e.g. RAD140, Cardarine) can precipitate if exposed to low temperature. If that happens you can run the vial under warm water and shake vigorously before administration to re-suspend and re-solve.

My product was exposed to high or low temperature, will it be ok?

Every chemical has its own unique decomposition properties.  Due to the second law of thermodynamics entropy is always increasing. On a long enough timescale, most molecules are thermodynamically unstable. The molecules of our products are always degrading, albeit slowly. Eventually, there will be a measurable decrease in purity. This can take several years with proper handling and storage. Changing the temperature of storage will affect the rate of degradation.
Let’s go over common scenarios.

 

  • 1. If a product is exposed to a lower than recommended temperature there will be no increase in the rate of degradation, with the exception that a solution product may precipitate and thus lose uniformity.

 

  • 2. If a product is exposed to a higher than recommended temperature the rate of degradation will be accelerated. For illustration let’s say a product requiring room temperature storage is exposed to 115ºF, in that case, there may be an increase in the rate of decomposition but this may not be measurable without months of continued exposure. Meaning you could leave a product in the heat for a few days and if after it is properly stored the shelf life will still be years.

 

  • 3. If a product requires cold temperature storage, such as a deep freezer at –20ºC, then the risk of degradation depends on the duration of exposure and the presence of oxygen, moisture, or sunlight. Oxygen, moisture, and sunlight all produce free radicals that can accelerate degradation. Even so, less than 24 hours of human-tolerable temperatures will not substantially degrade any of the products we carry.

Will my product come with a measuring tool (scoop, scale, pipette)?

We do not provide scoops or scales to measure powder. We recommend using a milligram scale to measure powder as volumetric scoops will be inaccurate.

 

All solution and solvent products come with a graduated pipette measuring up to 1.0mL.

Why is solution more expensive than powder?

Besides the additional labor, materials, and packaging, solutions also require additional QC procedures. For comparison, to analyze a powder product, you only need a single sample sent out for analysis, even if the batch is 1000+grams, provided the batch is uniform and the sample is representative of the whole.

 

Solutions, however, cannot be aggregated into a single sample because that would tell us nothing about the consistency of individual vials. So to verify 1000 vials of the solution you would need to test each one.

 

Instead, we follow the industry-standard practice of random sampling. Each lot of solution is ~100 vials. We sample from different stages of the filling process to confirm there is no anomaly at any stage. But this is still dozens of tests per 1000 vials and each analysis costs $150-350.

Why does my product look/seem different than last time?

Changes in color, texture, odor, and even biochemical and pharmacokinetic properties can be explained by differences in polymorphy i.e. the crystal structure of a substance. For example, sand and glass are made of the same molecule (SiO2) but have very different properties.

 

Several factors influence polymorphy, including the rate of change of temperature, pressure, and reactants during synthesis. The study of polymorphy is a critical discipline in its own right, integral to the application of chemistry, including materials science and medicine.

 

So, if you notice a slight difference between batches of products, polymorphy is most likely the reason.

Is this product restricted in my jurisdiction?

We try to keep up with local, national, and global restrictions but we are not a source for legal information. It is your responsibility to research your local law, so we recommend that you seek qualified legal counsel before import.

Where do you source raw materials?

Our raw materials are synthesized by large scale manufacturers and contract research organizations (CROs). Our partner factories are primarily based in China. In fact, most chemical producers are located in China and you should be very hesitant about any claims stating their products are “made in the U.S.A.”. This is for economic reasons, it is simply less expensive.
The modern chemical manufacturing industry is dominated by China. It is highly likely any industrial, nutraceutical, or pharmaceutical product you are working with was processed in China.

 

This is not a concern however as long as your vendor is conducting a third-party analysis. You should always demand evidence of third-party analysis for your research supplies.

Why does my product say it is not for human consumption?

Our products are not approved for medical use or for the treatment, prevention, diagnosis, or cure of any disease or illness.  In addition to being unsuited and unsafe for human consumption, they are not approved for sale to, or possession by, anyone other than someone qualified to handle them in a laboratory setting. We encourage our clients to seek qualified legal counsel in reviewing their potential use of our products, but we cannot provide such counsel ourselves.

Why is independent third party testing important?

Third-party testing helps assure you are getting exactly what you paid for. A vendor can tell you whatever they want but if an independent third party registered lab is certifying it, what they say will carry more weight.
Let’s go into detail about what that means. A third party lab is a lab that is not run by the vendor or the manufacturer (first and second parties). The third-party lab should also be independent, meaning they are not controlled by the other parties and have no conflict of interest in the results of the analysis.

 

It’s important the lab is reputable. If the lab doesn’t know what they’re doing or cuts corners it means their analysis might not be valid. There is a lot of fraud in the analytical chemistry industry, and it’s important to work with companies that value integrity and ethics. We’ve seen unethical labs ask their clients what they want the results to say before they even get a sample in.

 

We work hard to assure our contract labs are both ethical and use well-validated analytical methods.

What are impurities and what difference does ≥99%, ≥98% or ≥95% purity make?

There may not be a noticeable difference between ≥99% and ≥95% pure products. However, the problem is that you don’t know what’s in the impurity. It is usually residual reagents, byproducts, or side products. In some cases, these impurities can be toxic. And to a degree, impurities cannot be fully eliminated. It is difficult to characterize every byproduct and side product of synthesis and some impurities are just too small to measure. But impurities can be minimized. For that reason, the standard chromatographic purity in the pharmaceutical and nutraceutical industries is ≥99%. Whenever possible we carry ≥99%  products. If this is not possible at the production scale we carry the next best option (e.g. ≥98%, ≥95%) and make this publicly known on our COAs. Where appropriate we test for specific toxic residuals, byproducts, and heavy metals.

 

Peptide products are an exception as the primary residual of peptide synthesis will be amino acids, peptide fragments and salt counterions with little to no toxicity.

How is it possible for a quantitative (purity) report to be over 100%?

Quantitative (purity) data is usually a proxy for mass purity – which is difficult to measure. If you run into a purity report on our product listings it is most likely an HPLC (High-Performance Liquid Chromatography) report. HPLC measures chromatographic purity which is closely related to mass purity. It is the most popular quantitative technique and an industry standard.

 

HPLC purity reports are not a direct measure of chromatographic purity which will vary between injection runs. Instead, they are the mean of several (≥5) injection runs with an acceptable measurement error and variance. Our labs use ensure measurement error is less than ±2% and confidence is greater than ≥99.8%.

 

Chromatographic purity itself is quite nuanced and depends on the extinction coefficients of analytes, impurities, and wavelength of light used. It is not equivalent to mass purity. However, with a good reference standard, good methods and a relatively pure sample chromatography is a reliable approximation for mass purity and hence is used in lieu of mass purity in most cases.

 

For a more thorough explanation of potential sources of error please see the following StackExchange thread:

 

https://chemistry.stackexchange.com/questions/68041/hplc-lab-report-why-is-weight-purity-sometimes-over-100

What is your sourcing process?

When we decide to carry a product we use our contacts and industry resources to search for suppliers. Once we compile a list we begin the vetting process. From the most reputable we request samples. If the samples pass verification we request additional samples. If the samples are consistent we make a larger order.

 

Once we receive a raw material we put it in our QC room and evaluate it organoleptically. If it appears free of adulteration or contamination we send a sample to an accredited independent third-party lab for analysis. Our analytical methods are derived from the scientific literature where possible or else developed by PhDs in analytical and organic chemistry. If the lab reports match our specifications we OK the product for distribution.

 

If any of that process fails we start all over.

How does Venogen.com offer competitive pricing?

Our primary leverage is volume. We sell to other businesses so we benefit from economies of scale.

 

Another consideration is the pricing strategy. Our prices are derived from operational costs. Unethical competitors may price much higher because they focus on marketing or stoke brand loyalty by smearing the competition.

 

In our opinion, this is not a sustainable way to do business. The focus should always be on the customer and product. We do our best to keep prices low without sacrificing quality control.

Do you have third party lab reports for all products?

Yes, we verify every batch of every product. Independent third-party lab reports are available on our Analytical Database.

 

Regardless of what vendor you use, you should always request evidence of independent testing. Anything coming from a manufacturer or Chinese trading company is a no-go, as they will not re-test the products to confirm their purity or chemical identification. Venogen uses both NMR and HPLC testing for every batch to confirm the purity and chemical identity.

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